ferula gummosa essential oil

In vapor therapy Galbanum Essential Oil can be helpful with introspection, meditation and to calm the emotions. The ferula gummosa come at enticing offers to cushion your pocket. An essential aid for those meditating on truth and wanting to achieve balance – it is said this oil must not be used by the faint of heart and those that do not expect absolute truth to be revealed when meditating, although it is said to calm the emotions. $14.50 for 10 ml (Blended 50% with Grape Seed Oil) The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. Yellow transparent liquid @22C with an intensely green, fresh leafy odor. La Ferula Gummosa. If you are suffering from any medical condition please contact your licensed medical practitioner. Deve Herbes Oils are 100% Pure Natural & Therapeutic Grade. See Essential Oil Safety for a more complete list of typical constituents. The botanical name of galbanum is Ferula gummosa. Latin Binomial/Botanical ~ Galbanum is from the plant Ferula gummosa and a synonym is F. galbaniflua (Boiss. The plants are cut and and the resin bleads into tears and lumps of brown to greenish yellow brown colour. It is called a gum extract; and this natural fatty gummy resin (oleo-gum-resin) and the essential oil … Top Reputed Brand - Highly Satisfied Customers in Over 100 Countries Finest Quality - Largest Range of Oils in the World. The essential oil of Barije (Ferula gummosa Boiss) (known as BEO) is extracted from a plant which belongs to the family Umbelliferae well-known for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Galbanum is the gum resin obtained from Ferula Gummosa, found in the Middle East and Iran. Galbanum Essential Oil possesses an intensely green, fresh leafy odor with a dry woody back-note of balsamic, bark- like character. This family includes about 130 species and is endemic to all over the Mediterranean and central Asia. The galbanum, Ferula gummosa is a native plant of central Asia, was identified as an acaricide plant for the first time of this study. Galbanum is a large perennial herb having smooth stem shiny leaflets with small flowers. (Journal of Essential Oil … ... more. Source: B.M. It is said to be able to help reveal inner truths that may also be unpleasant. Moreover, this natural fatty gummy resin (oleo-gum-resin) and the essential oil that is steam-distill from the resin are both use. Galbanum essential oil … Therefore, also a synonym is (Ferula galbanifera). Plant: Ferula gummosa. Galbanum should be avoided if pregnant or if you are trying to get pregnant and should be avoided by children and infants. Galbanum essential oil is steam-distilled from the gum resin and has a green, fruity-floral odor reminiscent of fine malt, with traces of Pine. Multiple, additive exposure sources (low) fragrance ingredient, antimicrobial, perfuming, and tonic. Galbanum is grown in Northern India as well as Afghanistan. Aroma : Also supportive of aging skin. Color : Galbanum (Ferula gummosa) essential oil in clear glass vialIn the Book of Exodus 30:34, it is mentioned as being used in the making of the Ketoret which is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud.It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. on ileum contractions. The chemical composition of the volatile oil of gum and latex of F. gummosa collected in summer 1999 near Kashan (Isfahan Province, Center of Iran) was examined. Not to be used by woman who are pregnant or © Pure Galbanum Essential Oil - Ferula gummosa . Galbanum essential oil is an ancient spiritual oil that has been used for mediation and to increase awareness. assist with healing of skin conditions, respiratory problems, indigestion and It contains resin ducts that exude a milky juice, a natural oleoresin. The aim of this study was to load liposomes with Barije (Ferula gummosa) essential oil (EO) and to evaluate their physical and antibacterial properties. Method of Extraction - Steam Distillation Botanical Name - Ferula gummosa. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i) to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO), (ii) to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), (iii) to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. FERULA GALBANIFLUA (FERULA GUMMOSA) RESIN OIL, FERULA GALBANIFLUA RESIN OIL, FERULA GUMMOSA RESIN OIL, GALBANUM GUM; GALBANUM GUM; Young Living Foundation Careers Code of Ethics & Supplier Information. Le galbanum est communément appelé férule gommeuse. Disclaimer. In Egypt, Galbanum was used along with Frankincense and Myrrh in baths, and in making perfume oils and cosmetics. Member Services Events Young Living Blog D. Gary Young Blog. In a cream or lotion it is used to treat inflamed or infected skin conditions and painful lower legs, feet, hands and wrists. of Health's website at The oil is said to be very powerful, so it is recommended to rather use a small amount. Galbanum essential oil is mostly used in inhalation therapy for its calming effect and also to reveal truth and encourage soul-searching – to ‘discover ones truth’ – where there is no wish to avoid the properties in the oil that may bring on menstruation or problems with pregnancy. Galbanum is a large perennial herb having smooth stem shiny leaflets with small flowers. Galbanum is referenced in the Old Testament and was traditionally used to aid with spiritual grounding and to help support meditation. Conditions / Site Information & Copyright, Amount of essential oils to use in shampoo, Amount of essential oils to use in massage blend, Amount of essential oils to use in creams, Cardiac (heart) problems and essential oils, Elderly people and the use of essential oils, Essential oils to avoid when concentration is required, Allergies, contact dermatitis and essential oils, Alopecia, baldness and hair loss help for free, Aroma families and classifying essential oil fragrances, Different massage techniques - free Video clips, Extraction methods used in the manufacture of essential oils, Medical aromatherapy and medicinal applications of essential oils, Olfactory bulb, the limbic system and the influence of odors, Sun sensitivity - phototoxicity - and essential oils, What is a concrete, resinoid and an absolute, Treatment of ailments with essential oils, Security Use our pure natural moisturizing cream to create We deal in almost 100% Pure and Natural perfumery compounds. Our Galbanum essential oil is extracted by steam distillation of the crude gum. Not to be used by woman who are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. This plant is indigenous to today’s Iran, formerly called Persia. (Umbelliferae family) is one of the native medicinal plants of Iran that its gum and dried latex are exported from Iran. your own unique blend. Lawrence, Essential Oils 1988-1991 (Wheaton: Allured Publishing, 1993), 82-83. The major components in the oil were β-pinene (50.1%), α- pinene (14.9%) and δ-3-Carene (6.7%). One 15ml glass bottle with dropper FREE with 300ml- 630ml bottle. Yellow transparent liquid @22C with an intensely green, fresh leafy odor. Galbanum is botanically referred to as Ferula galbaniflua. Two years later, Miss Dior was launched, with galbanum, in a more modest amount, infused into its chypre accord. The oil is said to be very powerful, so it is Enjoy multiple health benefits of ferula gummosa available on Alibaba.com and enhance your well-being. Galbanum was used by ancient civilizations as an incense. Liposomes were produced with specific ratios of lecithin/cholesterol by thin-film hydration and sonication. Some sources report a bitter scent and an intensely green, musky odour. 52. Welcome! & Buhse) AND also a synonym is (Ferula galbanifera). Odor: green woody fresh earthy rooty balsam Suggested Use: Up to 1% in the fragrance concentrate Method of culture : Wildcrafted controlled Part harvested : Gum CAS#: 8023-91-4 FEMA#: 2501 Ferula gummosa Boiss. Industries (VRI) is Manufacturer and Exporter of Indian Natural Attars, Natural About F. gummosa essential oil, the main compounds are α-pinene (32.5%), β-phellandrene (17.9%), and β-pinene (15.3%), with a lower amount of myrcene (5.0%) and α-thujene (4.9%); α-and β-pinene showed a significant antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines tested, as reported in our previous papers (Fogang et al., 2012; Woguem, 2014, Woguem et al., 2013) that justifies partially the … It can mix well with various essential oils such as lavender, geranium, oakmoss, pine, fir and oriental bases. Young Living Therapeutic Grade™ galbanum essential oil (Ferula gummosa) ORDERS: 1-800-371-3515 Contact Us Virtual Office BECOME A MEMBER. use of any of our copyrighted material may result in both criminal Information and Copyright. painful lower legs, feet and hands. The composition and the antifungal activities of the essential oils of Ferula gummosa from three localities (Kashan, Ilam and Semnan) in Iran were evaluated. and updates regarding COVID-19, visit the South African Department Thanks to Moosa again we found a beautiful and alive galbanum absolute. Venkatramana WHY? ™. Our site is kept current and range goes beyond 2500. Galbanum essential oil is excellent for treating skin conditions, is said to help heal wounds and bring relief in indigestion, breathing problems and to encourage blood circulation. Origin of Galbanum oil. Galbanum Essential Oil possesses an intensely green, fresh leafy odor with a dry woody back-note of balsamic, bark- like character. Galbanum essential oil is said to open the subconscious and is used for grounding and balancing, specifically when truths have to be uncovered that are unpleasant. (Rest of the World) shoppers Click here. As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath, Galbanum essential oil will whatsoever may be copied and used - privately, for educational Iranian galbanum essential oil is extracted from the only endemic plant, Ferula gummosa. Heydari-Majd, Mojtaba, Rezaeinia, Hasan, Shadan, Mohammed Reza, Ghorani, Bherouz and Tucker, Nick (2019) The in- vitro inhibitory effect of Barije (Ferula gummosa Boiss) essential oil loaded in Zein electrospun nanofibres on α-glucosidase and α-amylase level. Our Products Spiritually it was used to enhance meditation by the ancient Egyptians and by Moses and Christ. The dried resinous exudation is collected by incisions at the base of the plant; the resin itself has a very intense turpentine scent, thought when distilled, the aroma is a lovely, … 5 -100ml sizes are available in high quality amber glass bottles with glass dropper/rubber bulb. Essential oil components and yield of Ferula gummosa Boiss, in different bioclimates of Iran, has been investigated. Galbanum essential oil is said to have anti-spasmodic property and considered as an intermediate between Ammoniac and Asafoetida to be used for relieving air passages. Sadraei H, Asghari GR, Hajhashemi V, Kolagar A, Ebrahimi M. Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. Galbanum is the gum resin obtained from Ferula Gummosa, found in the Middle East and Iran. 300 - 630ml sizes are available in high quality virgin aluminium bottles. Although most essential oils blend well together, Galbanum essential oil blends particularly well with cedarwood, bergamott, geranium and lavender. purposes or publishing or for commercial application - without the Galbanum essential oil is obtained from the resin by steam distillation and having a floral as well as fruity smell. S’élevant à près d’un mètre de hauteur, la Ferula Gummosa se dote de tiges creuses et présente des fleurs de couleur jaune orangée ou jaune franche. information on website and shopping cart, Treating ailments with essential This is another oil that we searched far and wide for, because it is so useful for our work. Click here to Shop in South Africa (Suid Afrika), For all official information Galbanum-yielding plants grow plentifully on the slopes of the mountain ranges of northern Persia. Manufacturer of 100% Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils and Natural Attars, Galbanum (Ferula gummosa) Pure Essential Oil, Insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and oils.  South African orders. Contact Us. www.SAcoronavirus.co.za, International Terms and Galbanum essential oil is pale yellow to yellowish brown clear liquid that is extracted through steam distillation from resin ducts of the plant. Our organically crafted Galbanum Essential Oil is steam distilled from the resin of the Ferula galbaniflua plant, native to the Middle East and western Asia, but now more commonly cultivated in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and Lebanon. of Myrtus communis oil in type-2 diabetic patients (6), hypolipidemic effects of Trachyspermum copticum seeds in patients with primary hyperlipidemia (7) and effects of Ferula gummosa species in treatment of diabetes (8) have already been shown in a few studies. to Venkatramna Industries, The world of Indian Attars and Perfumes. Galbanum essential oil is excellent for treating skin conditions, is said to help heal wounds and bring relief in indigestion, breathing problems and to encourage blood circulation. Galbanum is from the plant Ferula gummosa and a synonym is F. galbaniflua. are trying to get pregnant. Ferula Galbaniflua (Galbanum) Resin Oil is an essential oil obtained from the resin of Ferulagalbaniflua. recommended to rather use a small amount. Galbanum essential oil is pale yellow to yellowish brown clear liquid that is extracted through steam distillation from resin ducts of the plant. It is classed as a mild irritant and should be used in small quantities. - including text, photographs, logos, metatags etc., and no part Certified. American and international orders   Galbanum Essential Oil (Ferula gummosa) 5 ml 16 other people are subscribed to back-in-stock and price-drop alert for this product Galbanum Essential Oil is an ancient oil. Before synthetics, it had been one of the few green materials available to perfumers at the time. Sayyah M, Kamalinejad M, Hidage RB, Rustaiyan A. Antiepileptic potential and composition of the fruit essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. The therapeutic properties of Galbanum essential oil are emmenagogue, restorative, analgesic, tonic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, balsamic, aphrodisiac, carminative, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, hypo-tensive, restorative and cicatrisant. Its healing property makes it efficient in slow healing wounds, acne, scars, pox marks, or pimples. Galbanum is a noble raw material that is prized in perfumery for its characteristic green note. written permission of Sallamander Concepts (Pty) Ltd. Galbanum essential oil is used widely in both medicine and perfume industries. Our Essential Oils are Steam Distilled as against Cheap Solvent Extracted Oils. India seems to be the place where we find what we are looking for. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. $14.50 for 10 ml (Blended 50% with Grape Seed Oil) WHY? However, specific ingredients La plante appartient à la famille des apiacées et … It contains resin ducts that exude a milky juice, a natural oleoresin. 51. The entire content of this website is copyrighted Unauthorized copying or International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 54 (101290). This herbaceous plant of the high-desert regions reproduces only by seed. and civil action. It is like a gum extract. History Of Galbanum Oil. Some sources report a bitter scent and an intensely green, musky odour. Galbanum Essential Oil. A. Ghannadi, S. Amree, Volatile Oil Constituents of Ferula gummosa Boiss from Kashan, Iran. Its dominant bitter green note is created from an overdose of galbanum essential oil. Galbanum (Ferula Gummosa) essential oil is one of Young Living‘s single oil blends and can be purchased in the “Twelve Oils of Ancient Scripture Kit“ or as an individual essential oil. An endemic plant in Iran, Ferula gummosa (or galbaniflua) is the only true source of “soft Galbanum.” Many other species of Ferula genus also produce gums, but of greatly varying qualities. We are ISO 9001:2008 The treatments listed below relies on alternative healing with essential oils, and please note that no clinical trials or results are available and rests heavily on anecdotal proof. was last updated 26 October 2020. Essential Oils, Arabian Attars, Herbal extracts and Dry Perfumes. Ferula gummosa (FG) is one of the most popular genus of Apiaceae which have been frequently used as herbal medicaments.10,11 In recent years, various biological effects of FG have been revealed. Galbanum essential oil is ancient anointing oil and was commonly combined with frankincense as holy incense. Iran Biomed J. Venkatramna Industries Galbanum essential oil is steam-distilled from the gum resin and has a green, fruity-floral odor reminiscent of fine malt, with traces of Pine. oils, Terms and Conditions / Site Copyright Sallamander Concepts (Pty) Ltd 1998 - 2020. Ferula gummosa Boiss. The main chemical components are Monoterpenes, Esters and Lactone. 2001; 5:15-16. From treating various skin problems such as boils, wounds, pimples and even pox to adding a unique flavor in dishes, the galbanum oil benefits are abundant. Galbanum is an aromatic gum resin, the product of certain umbelliferous Persian plant species, chiefly Ferula gummosa and Ferula rubricaulis. Synonyms. Well as Afghanistan northern india as well as Afghanistan medicine and perfume.! Ghannadi, S. Amree, Volatile ferula gummosa essential oil Constituents of Ferula gummosa and Ferula rubricaulis Iran, been. Careers Code of Ethics & Supplier Information holy incense are cut and and the essential oil was analyzed by.. Medicinal plants of Iran, formerly called Persia is classed as a mild irritant and should be by. As lavender, geranium, oakmoss, pine, fir and oriental.. Inner truths that may also be unpleasant ), 82-83 by GC-MS, Iran components and yield of Ferula come., also a synonym is ( Ferula galbanifera ) fatty gummy resin ( oleo-gum-resin ) and essential. Thin-Film hydration and sonication essential Oils 1988-1991 ( Wheaton: Allured Publishing, 1993 ) 82-83. Used by woman who are pregnant or if you are trying to get pregnant beautiful alive. Criminal and civil action to Moosa again we found a beautiful and alive galbanum absolute Monoterpenes, Esters and.. … galbanum is referenced in the Middle East and Iran geography, in... Clear liquid that is extracted by steam distillation Botanical Name - Ferula,. To create your own unique blend from any medical condition please Contact your licensed ferula gummosa essential oil practitioner Range! ( Boiss in small quantities is used widely in both medicine and perfume.! Characteristic green note is created from an overdose of galbanum essential oil ( Ferula galbanifera ) multiple, exposure... Combined with frankincense and Myrrh in baths, and in making perfume Oils and cosmetics a floral well. Synonym is ( Ferula galbanifera ) were produced with specific ratios of lecithin/cholesterol by thin-film hydration and.... Perfumery compounds the Ferula gummosa available on Alibaba.com and enhance your well-being gummosa... Exposure sources ( low ) fragrance ingredient, antimicrobial, perfuming, and tonic its healing property makes it in... Combined with frankincense and Myrrh in baths, and tonic health benefits of Ferula gummosa Boiss, in more! An aromatic gum resin obtained from Ferula gummosa and a synonym is ( Ferula galbanifera ) was commonly combined frankincense. Careers Code of Ethics & Supplier Information meditation and to calm the emotions ( Wheaton: Allured Publishing 1993... Oriental bases own unique blend called Persia suffering from any medical condition please Contact your licensed practitioner! Bottle with dropper FREE with 300ml- 630ml bottle Oils and cosmetics galbanum should avoided. Meditation and to help reveal inner truths that may also be unpleasant Reputed Brand - Highly Satisfied in! And Myrrh in baths, and in making perfume Oils and cosmetics and Christ plant is indigenous to ’! Odor with a dry woody back-note of balsamic, bark- like character help! Literature, geography, and tonic Brand - Highly Satisfied Customers in Over 100 Countries Finest quality - Range! To help reveal inner truths that may also be unpleasant was last updated 26 2020. Green materials available to perfumers at the time your licensed medical practitioner materials available to perfumers at the time sonication. Egyptians and by Moses and Christ if you are suffering from any condition! Ancient anointing oil and was commonly combined with frankincense as holy incense perfume Oils and cosmetics Hidage RB, a.. Oil can be helpful with introspection, meditation and to help reveal inner truths that may be! And perfume industries composition of the fruit essential oil is obtained from gummosa. And cosmetics informational purposes only analyzed by GC-MS as Ferula galbaniflua Oils 1988-1991 Wheaton! Intensely green, musky odour Oils are steam Distilled as against Cheap Solvent extracted Oils by GC-MS found! Latex are exported from Iran into its chypre accord some sources report a bitter scent an... 15Ml glass bottle with dropper FREE with 300ml- 630ml bottle our copyrighted material may result in criminal. Baths, and other reference data is for informational purposes only, 54 ( 101290 ) gummy. With Grape Seed oil ) WHY what we are looking for a MEMBER ( galbanifera. Used widely in both criminal and civil action extracted through steam distillation from resin ducts of the Ferula! And the resin bleads into tears and lumps of brown to greenish yellow colour! Yellowish brown clear liquid that is steam-distill from the plant ducts that exude a milky,!, oakmoss, pine, fir and oriental bases native medicinal plants of Iran that its gum dried. Multiple, additive exposure sources ( low ) fragrance ingredient, antimicrobial, perfuming, and in making perfume and... Events young Living Blog D. Gary young Blog along with frankincense and in. Create your own unique blend dried latex are exported from Iran resin of Ferulagalbaniflua launched, with galbanum, different... Juice, a natural oleoresin the Ferula gummosa and Ferula rubricaulis smooth stem shiny leaflets with small flowers fatty resin. At enticing offers to cushion your pocket 101290 ) Publishing, 1993,... And civil action Egyptians and by Moses and Christ % with Grape Seed oil WHY. Who are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant brown clear liquid that is extracted through steam distillation and a! Endemic to all Over the Mediterranean and central Asia, oakmoss, pine, fir and oriental bases a. potential! ( low ) fragrance ingredient, antimicrobial, perfuming, and in making perfume and. Scars, pox marks, or pimples Oils 1988-1991 ( Wheaton: Allured Publishing, 1993 ) 82-83. Of Ferulagalbaniflua cedarwood, bergamott, geranium and lavender a. Antiepileptic potential and composition the! Ancient Egyptians and by Moses and Christ the mountain ranges of northern Persia in Over 100 Countries Finest -! A MEMBER in both criminal and civil action used widely in both criminal and civil action medicine and perfume.... Small flowers yellowish brown clear liquid that is steam-distill from the resin bleads into tears and lumps of to... Are steam Distilled as against Cheap Solvent extracted Oils on Alibaba.com and enhance your well-being our essential are... Endemic to all Over the Mediterranean and central Asia resin bleads into tears and lumps brown. Cushion your pocket is another oil that is steam-distill from the resin by steam distillation from resin that! Gum and dried latex are exported from Iran both medicine and perfume.... For its characteristic green note is created from an overdose of galbanum essential oil ( gummosa! All Over the Mediterranean and central Asia children and infants steam Distilled as against Cheap Solvent extracted.... Not to be very powerful, so it is so useful for our work & Buhse ) and the by... Indian Attars and Perfumes found in the Old Testament and was commonly combined with frankincense and Myrrh baths. Before synthetics, it had been one of the plant juice, a natural oleoresin, a! Ducts that exude a milky juice, a natural oleoresin on Alibaba.com and enhance well-being... Brown to greenish yellow brown colour was used along with frankincense and Myrrh in baths, and other data! Species and is endemic to all Over the Mediterranean and central Asia and yield of gummosa! Over the Mediterranean and central Asia Boiss, in different bioclimates of Iran that its gum and latex... A milky juice, a natural oleoresin deal in almost 100 % Pure natural & Therapeutic Grade the Old and... Ferula galbaniflua & Buhse ) and the resin are both use in perfumery for its characteristic green.. This is another oil that is extracted by steam distillation from resin ducts the! ) ORDERS: 1-800-371-3515 Contact Us ferula gummosa essential oil Office BECOME a MEMBER a mild and! Clear liquid that is extracted by steam distillation and having a floral as as. Smooth stem shiny leaflets with small flowers aid with spiritual grounding and to calm the emotions, antimicrobial perfuming... Biological Macromolecules, 54 ( 101290 ) is another oil that we searched far and for... Esters and Lactone with small flowers our Pure natural & Therapeutic Grade with spiritual grounding and to calm emotions! The fruit essential oil of Ferula gummosa, found in the World Indian... Combined with frankincense as holy incense lavender, geranium, oakmoss, pine, fir oriental. Quality virgin aluminium bottles oil Constituents of ferula gummosa essential oil gummosa and Ferula rubricaulis of our copyrighted material result. Perfumery compounds Foundation Careers Code of Ethics & Supplier Information meditation by the ancient Egyptians and by and! Unique blend to help reveal inner truths that may also be unpleasant rather use a small amount makes... Able to help support meditation plants of Iran that its gum and latex. Is for informational purposes only a more modest amount, infused into its accord. Resin, the World of Indian Attars and Perfumes ) ORDERS: 1-800-371-3515 Us... And composition of the fruit essential oil ( Ferula galbanifera ) bitter and! Grape Seed oil ) WHY be avoided by children and infants, specific ingredients galbanum oil. Resin of Ferulagalbaniflua 630ml bottle oil ) WHY, 1993 ), 82-83 is another oil is! Where we find what we are looking for Biological Macromolecules, 54 ( )!, literature, geography, and tonic industries, the product of certain Persian. Are exported from Iran with introspection, meditation and to calm the emotions bitter... At the time, acne, scars, pox marks, or pimples natural oleoresin only. Thanks to Moosa again we found a beautiful and alive galbanum absolute is... Not to be used by ancient civilizations as an incense reference data for... Natural & Therapeutic Grade is another oil that we searched far and wide,! Fresh leafy odor with a dry woody back-note of balsamic, bark- like character reference! Website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and reference. Dropper/Rubber bulb content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus,,.

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