Turkey is a member of the European Higher Education Area and actively participates in the Bologna Process. Intermittent supply, which was common in many cities, has become less frequent. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.  The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his comrades against the occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of the sultanate on 1 November 1922, the replacement of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) with the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. , Before the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the estimated number of Arabs in Turkey varied from 1 million to more than 2 million.  The narrow coastal strip between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea is home to the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests. In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate. Protein is important for muscle growth and maintenance.  However, since the 1980s, issues such as income inequality and class distinction have given rise to Islamism, a movement that supports a larger role for religion in government policies, and in theory supports obligation to authority, communal solidarity and social justice; though what that entails in practice is often contested. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Nâmık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh (Awakening), while the journalist Şinasi has written, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage). , Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location.  The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolises the foundation of Turkey for many Turkish nationalists.  Endangered languages in Turkey include Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Cappadocian Greek, Gagauz, Hértevin, Homshetsma, Kabard-Cherkes, Ladino (Judesmo), Laz, Mlahso, Pontic Greek, Romani, Suret, Turoyo, Ubykh, and Western Armenian. Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays. Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.  The term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, while the Turkish government is frequently criticised for its treatment of minorities. , In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia.  Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity. Four main regions can be identified: the northern folded zone, the southern folded zone, the central massif, and the Arabian platform. The efforts of Midhat Pasha during the late Tanzimat era led the Ottoman constitutional movement of 1876, which introduced the First Constitutional Era, but these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire.  Internationally acclaimed Turkish jazz and blues musicians and composers include Ahmet Ertegun (founder and president of Atlantic Records), Nükhet Ruacan and Kerem Görsev. S.N.  The drop was the result of events that had a significant impact on the country's demographic structure, such as the Armenian Genocide, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey and the emigration of Christians that began in the late 19th century and gained pace in the first quarter of the 20th century. Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision.  The Kemalist view supports a form of democracy with a secular constitution and Westernised culture, while maintaining the necessity of state intervention in the economy, education and other public services. Turkey does not have a federal system, and the provinces are subordinate to the central government in Ankara. They are among the largest birds in their ranges.  Turkish Armed Forces have overseas military bases in Albania, Iraq, Qatar, and Somalia. The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC, which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area.. Roderic. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern-day Turkey continues to have a small Jewish population. Steep slopes are common throughout the country, and flat or gently sloping land makes up barely one-sixth of the total area. The western portion of the Armenian highland is located in eastern Turkey; this region contains Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,137 metres (16,854 feet), and Lake Van, the largest lake in the country.  Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa, which was the capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1413.  TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. , Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. Foods rich in tryptophan include, you guessed it, turkey. There are 600 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. But sometimes the classic way is the best. Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture. However, in 1983, Prime Minister Turgut Özal initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.  The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media.  Under the government of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), discrimination against, and persecution of, the Alevi minority has increased. won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 2018–19 EuroLeague and the 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup, and finished third at the 1999–2000 EuroLeague and the 2000–01 SuproLeague. , Religion in Turkey (2019), Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism currently promotes Turkish tourism under the Turkey Home name.  In 2018, Freedom House rated Turkey at 32 (on a 0–100 scale) as Not Free.  Some religious and secular officials have claimed that atheism and deism are growing among Turkish people. During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey generally adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, foreign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields (such as broadcasting, telecommunications, energy, mining, etc.). More than 40,000 people have died as a result of the conflict. An ovenproof meat thermometer or instant-read thermometer, because temperature is the most reliable way to tell if the turkey … After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005. Visit the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey website for the most current visa and residency permit information..  The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. The Turkish government has granted Turkish citizenship to refugees who have joined the Syrian National Army. The country's tumultuous transition to multiparty democracy was interrupted by military coups d'état in 1960 and 1980, as well as by military memorandums in 1971 and 1997.  The efforts to decentralise the administrative structure are[when?] , Turkish literature is a mix of cultural influences. While the turkey roasts, its juices mingle in the pan with aromatics and just enough cornstarch to add body, creating an expertly seasoned gravy that’s ready at the end of the cooking time. Remaining challenges include the need to further increase wastewater treatment, to reduce the high level of non-revenue water hovering around 50% and to expand access to adequate sanitation in rural areas. , The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as c. 2300 BC. Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, MKE, among others. Throughout its history it has acted as both a barrier and a bridge between the two continents. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. The CIA World Factbook reports that Islam is the religion of 99.8% of the population, with Sunni Muslims as the largest sect, while 0.2% are Christians and Jews. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians c. 2000–1700 BC.  This is compulsory and lasts twelve years: four years each of primary school, middle school and high school.  Thus, alongside the Turkification of the territory, the culturally Persianized Seljuks set the basis for a Turko-Persian principal culture in Anatolia, which their eventual successors, the Ottomans, would take over.. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet.  The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities called beyliks. Separated by the narrow trough of the Kelkit and Çoruh river valleys stands a second ridge that rises above 8,000 feet (2,400 metres).  The largest city in Turkey, Istanbul, is also the largest city in Europe by population, and the third-largest city in Europe in terms of size. The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences.  As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, several other airlines operate in the country.  Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area.  Snow may remain at least 120 days of the year. In 2013 there were 98 airports in Turkey, including 22 international airports. Time-lapse video of the northern Black Sea coast of Turkey.  Beşiktaş won the 2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge, and Galatasaray won the 2015–16 Eurocup. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast.  The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey. , The real GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 6.8 percent annually, which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period. The Ottomans successfully defended the Dardanelles strait during the Gallipoli campaign (1915–1916) and achieved initial victories against British forces in the first two years of the Mesopotamian campaign, such as the Siege of Kut (1915–1916); but the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) turned the tide against the Ottomans in the Middle East. , Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. The loss of Rumelia (Ottoman territories in Europe) with the First Balkan War (1912–1913) was followed by the arrival of millions of Muslim refugees (muhacir) to Istanbul and Anatolia. Turkey jails hundreds for life over 2016 failed coup attempt In one of the biggest cases related to the plot to overthrow the government, 337 ex-pilots and others sentenced to life.  In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Ottoman Turkish oil wrestling champions such as Koca Yusuf, Nurullah Hasan and Kızılcıklı Mahmut acquired international fame in Europe and North America by winning world heavyweight wrestling championship titles. Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the province governors (vali) and town governors (kaymakam). In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. Let the turkey … Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools.. Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. In the southeast the Uludoruk Peak reaches 15,563 feet (4,744 metres); though further west, the Demirkazık Peak (12,320 feet [3,755 metres]) and Mount Aydos (11,414 feet [3,479 metres]) are also significant peaks. Until then, female roles had only been played by actresses who were members of Turkey's ethnic minorities. , In 2017 the theory of evolution was removed from the national curriculum of high schools, while the concept of jihad was added as a new subject. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. In the Caucasus campaign, however, the Russian forces had the upper hand from the beginning, especially after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915). In 324, Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome. Carving a turkey is a skill, not an art, which means you can learn it. 115-116. As of 2014[update], the country has a roadway network of 65,623 kilometres (40,776 miles).  The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012, the lowest among all OECD countries.  The Greco-Persian Wars started when the Greek city states on the coast of Anatolia rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC.  The Turkish pine is mostly found in Turkey and other east Mediterranean countries.  Non-denominational Muslims have been estimated to range from 2% to 14% of the population. The men's national basketball team won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship and at the EuroBasket 2001, which were both hosted by Turkey; and is one of the most successful at the Mediterranean Games. In Istanbul, there are an estimated three million Kurds, making it the city with the largest Kurdish population in the world. had to subsidise most of the industrial projects, due to the lack of a strong private sector. Yüzyış ve XX. In time, Turkish women began to appear on stage, which was an important development in the late Ottoman society. , Turkish painting, in the Western sense, developed actively starting from the mid 19th century. Return to the refrigerator for at least 4 hours and up to 12 hours to dry out the skin (this helps crisp it). , In 2013, widespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces, sparked by a plan to demolish Gezi Park but soon growing into general anti-government dissent. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Topkapı Palace in Istanbul is one of the most famous examples of classical Ottoman architecture and was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years. , A 2016 survey by market research group Ipsos that interviewed 17,180 adults across 22 countries found that Islam was the dominant religion in Turkey, adhered to by 82% of the total population; religiously unaffiliated people comprised 13% of the population, while 2% were Christians. The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent.  The Bosphorus Bridge (1973), Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (2016) are the three suspension bridges connecting the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait. , Turkish television dramas are increasingly becoming popular beyond Turkey's borders and are among the country's most vital exports, both in terms of profit and public relations. Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as hatip designs in Turkey today. In 1948 both countries were included in the Marshall Plan and the OEEC for rebuilding European economies. and projecting this "Turkish Islam" abroad. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralised state.  The electoral threshold is ten percent of the votes. For safety’s sake, grab out your thermometer and check the bird’s internal temp again. In the early decades of the Turkish Republic, the government (or banks established and owned by the government, such as Türkiye İş Bankası (1924), Sanayi ve Maadin Bankası (1925), Emlak ve Eytam Bankası (1926), Central Bank of Turkey (1930), Sümerbank (1933), İller Bankası (1933), Etibank (1935), Denizbank (1937), Halk Bankası (1938), etc.) Of a total boundary length of some 4,000 miles (6,440 km), about three-fourths is maritime, including coastlines along the Black Sea, the Aegean, and the Mediterranean, as well as the narrows that link the Black and Aegean seas. , Turkey has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", the "Rock Sites of Cappadocia", the "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük", "Hattusa: the Hittite Capital", the "Archaeological Site of Troy", "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape", "Hierapolis – Pamukkale", and "Mount Nemrut"; and 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, such as the archaeological sites or historic urban centres of Göbekli Tepe, Gordion, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Perga, Lycia, Sagalassos, Aizanoi, Zeugma, Ani, Harran, Mardin, Konya and Alanya. The capital is Ankara, and its largest city and seaport is Istanbul. A presidential system was adopted by referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018 and gives the President complete control of the executive, including the power to issue decrees, appoint his own cabinet, draw up the budget, dissolve parliament by calling early elections, and make appointments to the bureaucracy and the courts. The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Turkey is bounded on the north by the Black Sea, on the northeast by Georgia and Armenia, on the east by Azerbaijan and Iran, on the southeast by Iraq and Syria, on the southwest and west by the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, and on the northwest by Greece and Bulgaria.  With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father Turk). Following the publication of Ünver's book subsequent studies were published, including a 1978 study by a historian named Bahaettin Ögel about the Central Asian origins of Turkish cuisine. The Caspian tiger, now extinct, lived in the easternmost regions of Turkey until the latter half of the 20th century. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.. The system as a whole is referred to as the Pontic Mountains (Doğukaradeniz Dağları). Despite this however, western music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 1970s and 1980s. Follow these easy steps for mastering the technique, then watch the how-to video.  Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities" such as the Ergenekon and Balyoz cases, while thousands have been investigated on charges such as "denigrating Turkishness" or "insulting Islam" in an effort to sow self-censorship. According to figures released by the Justice Ministry, there are 100,000 people in Turkish prisons as of November 2008, a doubling since 2000. European Turkey comprises 3 percent of the country's territory. , The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia, thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. From AC/DC to Bruce Springsteen, test your knowledge of the origins of various musicians and groups in this quiz.  All state and private universities are under the control of the Higher Education Board (YÖK), whose head is appointed by the President of Turkey; and since 2016 the President directly appoints all rectors of all state and private universities. 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