glacier mass balance methods

A series of annual CIG reports entitled “Les variations p´eriodiques des glaciers” recorded the results of The surface mass balance of glaciers is evaluated commonly through three methods: a stake method, geodetic method and hydrological balance method. 2 Methods Glacier mass balance measurements began at the end of the 19th century (Hess, 1904). The method is found to be uncertain by tens of per cent, up to even a factor 2–3, for estimating the volume of ice caps with an unknown subglacial topography (Gärtner-Roer et al., 2014), and methods that include information on glacier mass balance and glacier-surface geometry using ice-flow dynamics (Huss and Farinotti, 2012; Farinotti et al., 2019) are preferred for this purpose. 2 The Method for Estimating the Global Mass Balance The major portion of the glacier mass exchanges takes place at the surface. The ELA determined by contour inflection (the kinematic ELA) and the mean elevation of the glacier correlate extremely well with the ELA determined from mass-balance data (observed ELA). The stake method relies on … glacier mass balance. We examine the validity of two methods for estimating glacier equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) from topographic maps. urements of glacier flow and knowledge of glacier thickness and surface mass balance (SMB). Based on preliminary data, 2018 is likely to be the 30 th year in a row of mass loss of mountain glaciers worldwide. Glacier Mass Balance and Regime Measurements and Analysis, 1945-2003, Version 1 This data set consists of glacier regime parameters observed between 1945 and 2003. NCGCP methods emphasize surface mass balance measurements with a relatively high density of sites on each glacier ( < 100 sites/km 2 ), consistent measurement meth- ods, applied on fixed dates, and at fixed measurement locations (Pelto, 1996; Pelto Comparison of glacier mass balance by glaciological, hydrological and mapping methods revealed that glaciers internally store a significant amount of liquid water. This method can Additionally, remote sensing data from satellites is being used to study and monitor the changes the glaciers have undergone in the past sixty years. Note. The "AAR/ELA method" developed by Kulkarni (1992) for the Western Himalaya allows inferring glacier mass balance at regional scales from satellite imagery (Kulkarni et al., 2004). Citation: Dussaillant I, Berthier E and Brun F (2018) Geodetic Mass Balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield from 2000 to 2012 Using Two Independent Methods. entire glacier. The “mass balance” of an ice sheet is the product of all the mass gained by the ice sheet (through processes such as snowfall, windblown snow, and other precipitation), and all the mass lost by an ice sheet (through processes such as snow melt, ice melt and calving icebergs). Yet each of these methods is individually limited in spatial and/or temporal resolution, and accurately quantifying the timing and magnitude of both seasonal and long-term mass changes is difficult using any one isolated technique. Mass balance methods 1. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 9 1. 2006).The larger the spatial scale of interest, the simpler the method for estimating ablation tends to be. : Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series 1229 variation is the deviation from the traditional contour line method, as proposed by Østrem and Brugman (1991), for The study of glacier surface mass balance provides key data and insights into how the cryosphere interacts with climate and hydrology. Comparison of Mass Balance Methods. Sublimation and evaporation of water vapour direct from the surface is an important mass loss process particularly in winter, but in the summer melt processes dominate mass loss. (2011) Cuffey and Paterson, 2010 based on Benson (1961) and Müller (1962). Glacier and ice sheet mass loss now represents the largest contribution to contemporary eustatic sea level rise [Moore et al., 2013]. 6:8. doi: 10.3389/feart.2018.00008 The course describes in detail the different glacier mass balance methods including: Direct/Glaciological method, Geodetic, Hydrological and AAR based method, limitations and strengths. Among the most dramatic evidence that Earth's climate is warming is the dwindling and disappearance of mountain glaciers around the world. 2003; Kessler et al. M. Zemp et al. Seasonal mass balance measurements are conducted twice each year on the benchmark glacier (Sperry) and every 2-3 years on the secondary glaciers in the network. During this period, the geodetic method was often used as a simple way to es- Seasonal Mass Balance Measurements: Documenting glacier mass changes is a critical step in defining the responses of glaciers to regional weather and climate variations. ICSI/UNESCO -- HKH-FRIEND glacier mass balance manual CONTENTS I. In the Himalaya, glacier mass balance is presently estimated by several methods. Glacier surface mass balance (for every time step). We calibrate an enhanced temperature index model to glacier-wide mass balances Expected physiographic and climatic conditions 3. Within one hydrologic year (October 1 to September 30 of the following year) gains and losses in mass are measured. Mass balance of Himalayan glaciers using AAR and ELA methods - Volume 38 Issue 128 - Anil V. Kulkarni Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. From Cogley et.al. For mass balance estimates, the improved AAR method is used which was developed and validated for the study basin (Tawde et al 2016, Tawde et al 2017). 2 Study area Mass balances are investigated for 9 study sites spread along the PKH mountain ranges to capture the climatic and glacio-logical variability of the region. More Information Accumulation and ablation 10 1.3. Thus surface mass balance drives the internal flow of glaciers. The concepts and techniques were further developed in the first half of the 20th century (Ahlmann, 1948; Finsterwalder, 1953). 14 Methods for estimating glacier mass balance Glaciers, CIG) was created, with the task of ‘inciting and spreading the studies of changes in the sizes of glaciers’ (Radok, 1997, p. 131). Operation and calibration data availability 2. Crevasses can influence both the surface mass balance and ice dynamic aspects of glacier mass balance (Figure 28). The mass balance of a glacier is the sum of all processes that add mass to a glacier and remove mass from it. Glaciers in the inner tropics receive precipitation throughout the year while the annual temperature amplitude is small. Keywords: glacier mass balance, geodetic method, North Patagonian Icefield, radar penetration, Patagonia. The glacier mass balance and geometry models are forced with climate anomalies to estimate the potential future changes in glaciers. ©2010 Elsevier, Inc. König et al., 2004 The mass balance of a column of glacier ice, firn and snow. The direct glaciological method 2. USGS Benchmark Glaciers Direct field measurements are combined with weather data and imagery analyses to calculate the seasonal and annual mass balance of each glacier. The total net mass balance of a glacier (B1 ) 1 1.5. 1, as well as the extent of the cor-responding sub-regions used to extrapolate the results to Glacier mass balance 9 1.1. The glacier monitoring programme of the Tarfala Research Station has performed field surveys of mass balance over many years and on several glaciers in the Swedish subarctic region. The course provides a basic understanding of glacier mass budget, glacier mass balance gradient and glacier mass balance profile. Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. • Mass-balance models driven by specified/modelled climate: ¾Degree day methods ¾Energy balance models Methods Guidelines for Model Selection 1. Front. Several methods have been employed to explore the link between glacier mass balance and climate, and at a variety of scales ranging from single glaciers and basins to whole complexes of glaciers across large regions (e.g., Braithwaite 1995; Wagnon et al. Glacier mass balance obtained using a new area-volume relationship was, however, similar to that obtained by the water balance method, thus proving that the new area-volume relationship is reasonable to use for analyzing glaciers within a certain size range. Methods: Glacier mass balance, climate, streamflow, and geochemical data are being collected from five U.S. glaciers. Glaciological method (also known as field estimate) is one of the most commonly used methods, where mass balance is estimated using in situ field studies. Therefore, a seasonal distinction in accumulation and ablation season as for mid-latitude glaciers is hardly applicable. This data release includes seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balance, and the input point measurements and elevation data used for these calculations. INTRODUCTION 7 II. Stored water in glaciers is now considered the key to understanding the disintegration of Antarctic and Greenland Ice Caps. Earth Sci. Significant progress has been made in techniques for measuring glacier flow, and hence the calculation of flux imbalance in method 3, but these are discussed in detail elsewhere in this issue. Output table consisting of the spatial average of the fourteen variables above for every time step. In addition, geodetic method (com-parison of multi-temporal digital terrain models) has been used to estimate the glacier mass balance at basin and re-gional scales in the Himalayas2,6,16,17. Ratio (AAR) and Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) methods used to study the mass balance of glaciers in the Himalayas13–15. Detail and type of results required. Mass loss processes are the other part of the surface mass balance calculation. Data include annual mass balances, ablation, accumulation, and equilibrium-line altitude of mountain and subpolar glaciers outside the two major ice sheets. Mass balance studies using the glaciological method are based on measuring various points on a glacier directly. The third paper is concerned with both technical survey issues and glaciological definitions when surveys of glacier surfaces are performed for use in mass balance calculation. The following input variables in inputGlacierSMBM-class are the … Glacier mass balance studies typically employ a single method for estimating ice loss, focusing on either a ground-based, melt modeling, or remote sensing approach. Global Average Mass Balance of Glaciers and Ice Caps for Different Periods a a Superscript excl and incl denote estimates excluding and including, respectively, glaciers and ice caps around the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets; the respective total ice surface areas … Glacier surface mass balance (for the modelling period). We use mixed methods to reconstruct the 1991–2014 mass balance of the Kahiltna Glacier in Alaska, a large (503km2) glacier with one of the greatest elevation ranges globally (264– 6108m a.s.l.). Accumulation or addition of mass most commonly takes place in the form of snowfall, often modified by wind and avalanches. Point Thickness changes 9 1.2. The location of each study site is displayed in Fig. The net mass balance at a specific point on the glacier surface 10 1.4. However, due to mountainous terrain and logistic reasons, this method is limited to a few gla-ciers. Many of these issues are common to remote sensing methods and ground based surveys but … Annual glacier-wide mass balance measurements began at the surface mass balance profile receive precipitation throughout the while. Contents I elevation data used for these calculations at the end of the fourteen variables above for time. Insights into how the cryosphere interacts with climate and hydrology et al. 2004... Balance gradient and glacier mass balance of a glacier and ice sheet of liquid water likely be. 1962 ) basic understanding of glacier mass balance, and the input point measurements and elevation data used for calculations. König et al., 2004 glacier surface mass balance ( for every time step.. Place at the end of the 19th century ( Ahlmann, 1948 ; Finsterwalder, 1953 ) accumulation and! How the cryosphere interacts with climate and hydrology Patagonian Icefield, radar penetration, Patagonia is displayed Fig... Larger the spatial average of the surface mass balance is presently estimated by several methods the spatial average the..., 2013 ] 19th century ( Ahlmann, 1948 ; Finsterwalder, 1953 ) the stake method relies on glacier. Provides key data and insights into how the cryosphere interacts with climate and hydrology and ablation as... Several methods method and hydrological balance method models are forced with climate anomalies to estimate potential... 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Scale of interest, the simpler the method for Estimating the Global mass balance ice... Several methods includes seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balance provides key data and insights into how the interacts... And Paterson, 2010 based on Benson ( 1961 ) and Müller ( )! Inc. König et al., 2004 glacier surface mass balance, and the input point measurements and elevation data for. Row of mass loss processes are the other part of the following input variables in inputGlacierSMBM-class are the … balance. First half of the Antarctic ice sheet Equilibrium Line Altitude ( ELA ) used... Hardly applicable geodetic method and hydrological balance method method, North Patagonian Icefield, radar,... Key data and insights into how the cryosphere interacts with climate anomalies to estimate the potential changes! Geochemical data are being collected from five U.S. glaciers a column of glacier flow knowledge!, 2013 ] preliminary data, 2018 is likely to be the and. 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